Now let us put some light on internal parts of the term paper and they are essential to know and it is the duty of each and every student to get familiar with the environment of doing research. Here I am giving some information on case studies and action research. Have a look!

Case Studies

A case study is an extensive inquiry into a single situation. Rather than analyzing a small number of variables within a large sample to fit within the sampling criteria, a case study concentrates on a single (hopefully representative) case in which many variables are examined in-depth. Of course, if time permits, it is worth studying several cases for comparison, looking for any discrepancies which might show that the case under study was not a representative one.

A typical case study is one where it is assumed that the studied case is representative of a family of other situations to which the same results can be applied. If there are enough resources, it is beneficial to study more than a single case in order to have a comparative study. If the studied case is unique, then the study is an atypical one.

The case should be well chosen and well described so that the reader may be convinced that it indeed represents a category of cases.
• History and location of the organization
• Details of similar cases
• An account of the national and international picture and the relations to the government
• The management structure and its operation
• The role of an accepted theory about the operation of the company

The case study can be conducted in different ways, utilizing interviews, questionnaires, and observations, all of which should be considered from several angles. It is an economic undertaking conducted by a single person or just a few people and is inexpensive. On the other hand, if the chosen case was not representative, it might lead to false conclusions and a fear of generalizations.

Action Research

In action research, the performance and actions of the researcher are studied so that it may be improved upon. Action research is therefore an iterative undertaking, shifting from actions to their study, improvement, and implementation, and back again to a new study. The concept of improvement is an essential part of the process. It is more time consuming than a case study and more complicated to execute.
Five stage approach to action research:

1. Identify the issues and what should be investigated and then gather information
2. Work out a plan of action based on the information you collected in the previous stage.
3. Implement the action plan and note the changes. Again, gather information.
4. Analyze the outcomes and the results of your action. This will lead to a new set of steps.
5. Repeat stages 2-4 until you are satisfied.

Just to wrap up this post I would like to conclude that always look in to loop holes of your research and try to make it strong as much as you can.

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