How to do Citation of Electronic Communications

Gloria Hamilton 25/01/11 11:00 AM

When you are making your term paper you need to keep in mind some points related to citation and these are essential and very important for your term paper article. In this post I have decided to give some tips about various forms of citations and I am sure students will get benefit from that.

Electronic Communications (Email, Podcast etc.)

Emails

When citing emails it is important that you get the permission of the sender of the email before citing it.
A reference to an email should include the following information, in this order:
Sender
Sender’s email address (in round brackets)
Day, month and year the email was sent
Subject of message (in italics)
The words Email to followed by the recipient’s name
Recipient’s e-mail address (in round brackets)

For example:
Jones, S. (SJones@world.ac.uk), 20 June 2006. Re:How to cite an email. Email to P. Smith (p.smith@world.ac.uk).

Podcast
A reference to a podcast should include the following information, in this order:
Title (in italics)
(Year)
Podcast
[Online]
Available from: URL
(Date of access & time and time zone) (this should include hours, minutes & seconds)

For example:
Nature Podcast (2006). Podcast [Online]. Available from: http://www.nature.com/environmental/index.html (Accessed: 25 May 2006 GMT 18:11:06).

Textbooks and course information

You may want to cite information from a course textbook created by your institution or information from a lecture. For printed textbooks, also see the general notes on how to reference books and electronic books. For Web-based material also see the general notes on referencing WWW sources and other E-Sources.
A reference to information from a University textbook or online module should include the following information where applicable, in this order (see examples below):

• Corporate author e.g. University of Liverpool/Laureate Online Education

• Year of publication for printed resources or year notes were issued (in round brackets), e.g. (2007)

• Details of the module and seminar the information is taken from (in italics), e.g. Lecture notes from CPD module

• Source of notes eg. Available from: University of Liverpool/Laureate Online Education Blackboard

• Day, month and year notes were accessed (in round brackets), e.g. (Accessed: 28 February 2007)

For example:
A printed textbook –
University of Liverpool/Laureate Online Education (2008) Managing Resources, 2nd ed. Dorchester, Great Britain: Pearson Education Limited.
Notes issued during a class –
University of Liverpool/Laureate Online Education (2007) Lecture notes from Managing People Module Seminar 4 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool/Laureate Online Education Blackboard (Accessed: 28 February 2007).

Online images

A reference to an Online Image should include the following information, in this order:
Author/artist
Year (in round brackets)
Title of Image, or a description, which must be in italics

[Online image]
Available from: URL
Filename including extension
Accessed: followed by the date the document was accessed (in round brackets)

For example:
University of Liverpool (2004) University of Liverpool crest [Online image]. Available from: http://www.liv.ac.uk/images/logo.gif (Accessed: 20 May 2004).

So that’s all about the citation and Papers Inn provides all type of term papers, research papers, essays and thesis writing to students of all levels and please feel comfortable to place your Order!

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