How to reference using the Harvard System of Referencing

Gloria Hamilton 17/01/11 11:38 AM

It is one of the hot topics as far as student’s assignments are concerned and today you will get a chance to learn some tips on Harvard citation style in your term paper or research paper. The Harvard system is an established method of referencing and has advantages of flexibility, simplicity, clarity and ease of use both for author and reader.

There are two parts to referencing using the Harvard System:

• Citing in the text of your work – this means acknowledging, within your text, the sources that you have used.
• Your Bibliography (containing bibliographic citations) – these are the details of the sources you have used. You list them in alphabetical order at the end of your work. This is your reference list.

Citing in the text of your work
When you refer to another document you must acknowledge this within the text of your work, by citing the author’s surname and the date of publication, and where appropriate and available, the page number.
You must include the page number when you:

* Use a direct quotation from an original source
* Summarise an idea from a particular page
* Copy tables or figures
* Provide particular details, such as a date

However, when your sentence summarises the main view expressed in an article/book etc. and this does not come from a particular page you are not required to use page numbers, e.g.

Artificial intelligence (AI) may be defined as the branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour (Lugar, 2001).

Put short quotations (around twenty words or less) in inverted commas within the text, e.g.
It can be seen that “Korean companies have been traditionally characterized by long-term contracts” (Chang, 2003, p.77), which has affected…

The following formats would also be acceptable:

Chang (2003, p.77) stated that “Korean companies have been traditionally characterized by long-term contracts and seniority-based management”.

Chang (2003: 77) stated that “Korean companies have been traditionally characterized by long-term contracts and seniority-based management”.

Long quotations should typically be indented in a separate paragraph, in a smaller font and without quotation marks. Cite the author and date in the same font and in brackets at the right margin of the page, under the quotation, e.g.:

Despite the fact that advanced computer technology, including Client/Server and distributed-object computing, and Internet/WEB technology, provides reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for Product Data Management in the large, companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems.

(Zarli & Richaud, 1999: 2)
However the following formats would also be acceptable if you wish to continue an argument directly from the quotation:

“Despite the fact that advanced computer technology, including Client/Server and distributed-object computing, and Internet/WEB technology, provides reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for Product Data Management in the large, companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems” (Zarli & Richaud, 1999, p.2), therefore it can be seen that…

“Despite the fact that advanced computer technology, including Client/Server and distributed-object computing, and Internet/WEB technology, provides reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for Product Data Management in the large, companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems” (Zarli & Richaud, 1999: 2), therefore it can be seen that…

So that’s all for today and keep reading posts and give your feed back.

Posted by Gloria Hamilton | in Education | 5 Comments »

5 Comments on “How to reference using the Harvard System of Referencing”

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