Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement was based on the human right for equal protection of the laws and carried out between the 1960s and the 1980s. This political movement comprised of a great deal of civil unrest and widespread rebellions. The Civil Rights Movement was carried out for different purposes in different countries and while it was successful in achieving objectives in some nations, in others it was not so. In most countries, the process to equal rights of the laws was tenuous and longsighted. However, in later years, the Civil Rights Movement acquired an incisive inclination towards the radical left.

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The Civil Rights Movement as well as the Vietnam War proved to be sparks for popular protests of the sixties. The Civil Rights Movement in the US was drawn to an end after the Civil Rights Act passed by the Congress in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This political movement guaranteed the basic civil rights of all Americans after almost a decade of protests and marches.

In the US Civil Rights Movement, unprecedented nonviolent resistance and boycotts were carried out which received national attention as all networks including the radio, television and newspaper struggled to document every aspect of the Civil Rights Movement. The efforts of the Civil Rights Movement were successful in achieving the 1954 Brown decision, 1964 Civil Rights Act as well as the 1965 Voting Rights Act. The black struggle for equal civil rights had also inspired other liberation movements such as those of Native Americans.


The feminist movement spanning from 1963 to 1982 was focused on issues of educational qualities, social and economic choices as well as general equality of rights to female in minorities instead of gender discrimination. The first wave feminism had previously focused on precise rights such as the right to vote. In contrast, the second wave of feminism, the movement focused on numerous issues concerning political power, reproductive freedom, sexuality, professional equality and choice as well as many other issues.

Even though, the movement has been widely noted to have spanned from 1960s to late 1980s, the precise years of the feminist movement are contradicted. It is well accepted that the movement began in 1963 with Betty Friedan aka Mother of the Movement published the “The Feminine Mystique.” Another trigger for this movement is considered as the report released by John F. Kennedy’s Commission regarding the status of women and inequality based on gender. This led to formation or establishments of numerous feminine groups at the local, state as well as the federal level along with many liberation organizations dedicated towards gender equality.

The feminist movement achieved its objectives with passages of laws such as the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Equal Pay Act of 1963 and also the Supreme Court Ruling in 1965 in the Griswold vs. Connecticut. The feminist movement of 1960s and 1980s gained more support when Betty Friedan joined to establish the National Organization for Women in 1966.

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